Steel is an alloy metal that is made up of iron and carbon. Manufacturers add metals such as chromium, manganese, and nickel to create steel with different physical and chemical properties. One of the most widely used types of steel is S235 grade steel. This steel is known for its excellent weldability, strength, and versatility. This blog post will discuss the composition, physical and mechanical properties, uses, hardness, and heat treatment of S235-grade steel.
S235 Grade Steel Composition
S235 grade steel contains 2-3% manganese, 0.1% carbon, and 1.5% copper. These components provide S235-grade steel with excellent strength and ductility. The steel also contains small amounts of phosphorus and sulfur that help improve its machinability and weldability. The primary alloying element of S235-grade steel is manganese, which enhances the steel’s mechanical properties.
S235 Grade Steel Physical Properties
S235 grade steel has excellent physical properties that make it suitable for various applications. It has a 7.85 g/cm³ density and a melting point 1430-1490℃. The steel has a thermal conductivity of 52 W/mK, which makes it an ideal material for heat transfer applications. S235 grade steel has a specific heat capacity of 490J/kg/K, meaning it can absorb large amounts of heat while maintaining its temperature.
S235 Grade Steel Mechanical Properties
S235 grade steel has excellent mechanical properties, making it ideal for various structural applications. It has a minimum yield strength of 235 MPa and a tensile strength of 360-510 MPa. The steel has a high elongation capacity of up to 26%, which makes it easy to form and shape. S235 grade steel is known for its toughness, ductility, and impact resistance.
|Yield strength, N/mm2 (min)
|Tensile strength, N/mm2 (min)
|Elongation δ5, %
S235 Grade Steel Equivalents
S235 Grade Steel Uses
S235 grade steel is widely used in the construction industry for the manufacturing of building structures, bridges, and pipelines. It is also used in the automotive industry to manufacture chassis, exhaust systems, and other components. Steel is also used to manufacture machinery, agricultural equipment, and consumer goods. S235 grade steel’s excellent weldability makes it an ideal material for welding and fabrication, further expanding its range of applications.
S235 Grade Steel Hardness
S235 grade steel has a Brinell hardness of 120 HB and a Vickers hardness of 130 HV. It has a good balance of hardness and ductility, which makes it easy to cut, shape and form.
S235 Grade Steel Heat Treatment
S235 grade steel is not typically treated with heat to enhance its properties since it already possesses excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, it can be annealed to increase its workability and reduce stress on the material.
S235 grade steel is widely used with excellent weldability, strength, and versatility. Its manganese, copper, and carbon composition provides superior mechanical and physical properties, making it ideal for various applications. With a minimum yield strength of 235 MPa and a good balance of hardness and ductility, S235 grade steel is preferred for construction, automotive, and manufacturing industries. Understanding the composition, physical and mechanical properties use, hardness and heat treatment of S235 grade steel is essential to enable better decision-making regarding material selection and usage in various applications.