ThePipingMart Blog Grades SAE/AISI 1090 Carbon Steel(UNS G10900) – Composition, Properties and Uses

SAE/AISI 1090 Carbon Steel(UNS G10900) – Composition, Properties and Uses

SAE / AISI 1090

SAE / AISI 1090 is a high-carbon steel that offers good wear resistance and toughness. This alloy is best suited for applications that require heat treatment. It can be both hot and cold worked, as well as annealed, normalized, or water quenched. Let’s take a closer look at the properties of UNS G10900 alloy and how it’s used. Carbon steel is one of the most popular materials used in various engineering applications due to its durability and toughness. The AISI 1090 carbon steel or SAE-AISI 1090 steel, in particular, has a high carbon content, making it suitable for strength and hardness. It belongs to the UNS G10900 alloy, which contains iron, carbon, manganese, and sulfur as its primary elements. Its high carbon content also allows it to be heat treated to achieve even higher hardness and strength. Because of its impressive properties, 1090 carbon steel is widely used in high-stress applications, including axles, springs, and blades. It’s safe to say that AISI 1090 carbon steel is a reliable and invaluable material in various industries.

What Forms of AISI 1090 is Available at Piping Mart?

  • Nut
  • Bar
  • Bolt
  • Pipe
  • Screw
  • Tubing
  • Valves
  • Washers
  • Flanges
  • Fasteners
  • Electrodes
  • Stud Bolts
  • Sheet Plates
  • Pipe Fittings
  • Forged Fitting
  • Instrumentation Fittings

AISI 1090 Composition

Element Content (%)
Iron, Fe 98.03 – 98.55
Carbon, C 0.85 – 0.980
Manganese, Mn 0.60 – 0.90
Sulfur, S ≤ 0.050
Phosphorous, P ≤ 0.040

AISI 1090 Physical Properties

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.85 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in³

AISI 1090 Mechanical Properties

Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength 696 MPa 101000 psi
Yield strength 540 MPa 78300 psi
Bulk modulus (typical for steel) 140 GPa 20300 ksi
Shear modulus (typical for steel) 80 GPa 11600 ksi
Elastic modulus 190-210 GPa 27557-30458 ksi
Poisson’s ratio 0.27-0.30 0.27-0.30
Elongation at break (in 50 mm) 10% 10%
Reduction of area 40% 40%
Hardness, Brinell 197 197
Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell hardness) 219 219
Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell hardness) 92 92
Hardness, Rockwell C (converted from Brinell hardness. Value below normal HRC range, for comparison purposes only) 13 13
Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell hardness) 207 207

AISI 1090 Thermal Properties

Properties Metric Imperial
Thermal conductivity (typical steel) 49.8 W/mK 346 BTU in/hr.ft².°F

AISI 1090 Equivalent

  • AMS 5112
  • ASTM A29 (1090)
  • ASTM A510 (1090)
  • ASTM A576 (1090)
  • ASTM A713 (1090)
  • ASTM A830
  • SAE J1397 (1090)
  • SAE J403 (1090)
  • SAE J412 (1090)
  • AMS 5112E
  • SAE J414

AISI 1090 Properties

  • Good wear resistance
  • Good toughness
  • Best suited for applications that require heat treatment
  • It can be hot-worked, cold-worked, annealed, normalized, or water quenched

AISI 1090 Applications

  • Wear resistant parts
  • Cutting tools
  • Knives
  • Springs
  • Shafts

AISI 1090 Uses

SAE/AISI 1090 Carbon Steel (UNS G10900) is a widely-used material choice in many industries. Its high carbon content makes it incredibly durable, making it ideal for heavy-duty applications such as agricultural machinery and mining equipment. Additionally, it is frequently used in the manufacturing of springs and tensioning rods due to its excellent tensile strength properties. Industries such as construction and forestry also rely on this type of carbon steel because of its exceptional wear and abrasion resistance, making it an ideal choice for components that require a high level of durability. Overall, the multi-faceted uses of SAE/AISI 1090 Carbon Steel make it a valuable material in industries that require strength, resilience, and durability in their products.

AISI 1090 Uses in Industries

  • Automotive Industry
  • Aerospace Industry
  • Construction Industry
  • Oil and Gas Industry
  • Defense Industry

AISI 1090 Corrosion Resistance

AISI 1090 is an alloy steel with high levels of resistance to corrosion due to its unique blend of chemical elements. This combination is renowned for its rust-resistant properties, making it ideal for construction and other outdoor applications in environments where exposure to moisture and damp conditions may be a concern. Thanks to its outstanding strength-to-weight ratio, AISI 1090 is also widely used in automotive engineering and manufacturing of sprockets, wheels, crankshafts and car parts. Other applications that benefit from AISI 1090’s rust prevention properties include oil drilling rigs and general mechanical components across various industries.

AISI 1090 Machining

SAE/AISI 1090 machining requires experience and skill to work within tight tolerances. Made of medium-high carbon steel, this strong yet malleable material can be used for a variety of projects. With heightened cutting speeds and minimized twisting of the material during machining, the result is a smooth, even finish. 1090 is resistant to wear and impact damage but not to corrosion, meaning careful consideration must be given when selecting materials for production processes that require exposure to humid or wet conditions by understanding the strengths and limitations of 1090 steel and taking appropriate measures when machining pieces from it, efficient production runs are ensured with minimal wastage or defectiveness.

AISI 1090 Heat Treatment

Heat Treatment of SAE / AISI 1090   Heat treatment is often used to change the microstructure of metals and alloys to improve their mechanical properties. The most common heat treatments for SAE / AISI 1090 are:


Annealing is used to soften the metal and relieve stress. It is done by heating the metal to a specific temperature and then cooling it at a controlled rate.


Normalizing is used to refine the grain structure and eliminate internal stresses. It is done by heating the metal to a specific temperature and then cooling it in the air.


Hardening is used to increase the hardness and strength of the metal. It is done by heating the metal to a specific temperature and then cooling it in oil or water.


Tempering is used to reduce brittleness and improve ductility. It is done by reheating the metal to a specific temperature and then cooling it in the air.


SAE / AISI 1090 is a high-carbon steel with good wear resistance and toughness. It can be heat treated for improved mechanical properties. This alloy is typically used in cutting tools, knives, springs, shafts, and other wear-resistant parts.

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