Tool steel W1 is a high-carbon tool steel with excellent wear resistance, toughness, and machinability. UNS T72301 can be hardened to a Rockwell hardness of 62-64 HRC after heat treatment and is used in many industrial applications such as cutting tools, woodworking knives, and machine knives. This blog post will discuss the properties of W1 Tool Steel, its uses, corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and heat treatment processes, as well as its machining and welding properties.
W1 Tool Steel Composition
Tool Steel W1 is a high-carbon steel containing tungsten (W), chromium (Cr) and vanadium (V). It has excellent hardenability to Rockwell C-scale hardness levels of 62-64 HRC after heat treatment. The alloy also offers excellent wear resistance, toughness, and machinability.
W1 Tool Steel Physical Properties
|Density||7.83 g/cm3||0.283 lb/in3|
W1 Tool Steel Mechanical Properties
|Tensile strength, ultimate||1680 MPa||244000 psi|
|Tensile strength, yield||1500 MPa||218000 psi|
|Poisson’s ratio (25°C)||0.27-0.30||0.27-0.30|
|Elongation at break||3.50%||3.50%|
|Bulk modulus||140 GPa||20300 ksi|
|Shear modulus||80.0 GPa||11600 ksi|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30458 ksi|
|Charpy impact, unnotched||86.0 J||63.4 ft-lb|
|Hardness, Brinell (converted from Rockwell C Hardness)||498||498|
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell C Hardness)||558||558|
|Hardness, Rockwell C||50.0-51.0||50.0-51.0|
|Hardness, Vickers (converted from Rockwell C Hardness)||531||531|
|Machinability (based on AISI 1212 steel as 100% machinability)||40||40|
W1 Tool Steel Thermal Properties
|Thermal expansion||10.4 x 10-6/ºC||20-100||–|
|Thermal conductivity||48.3 x W/mK||100||–|
W1 Tool Steel Equivalent
- ASTM A686
- SAE J437 (W108), (W109), (WhO), (W112)
- SAE J438 (W108), (W109), (W110), (W112)
- UNS T72301
W1 Tool Steel Uses
Tool steel W1 is a versatile material that can be used for many applications, including cutting tools such as drill bits and taps; woodworking knives; machine knives; punches; dies; screwdrivers; reamers; chisels; saws; files; rasps; shears; blades for food processing equipment and tools for metal forming operations like bending or extruding.
Tool steel W1 offers good corrosion resistance due to its high chromium content, which helps protect it from rusting in most environments. However, it should not be exposed to moisture or chemicals that could cause corrosion since it does not contain any nickel or molybdenum, which are common components known for their superior corrosion resistance compared to other steels.
The chromium content in tool steel W1 also helps increase the steel’s heat resistance up to 1120°F (600°C). However, this material should not be exposed to temperatures above 1400°F (760°C) as it may lose some of its strength due to oxidation.
When heat treating tool steel W1, it should first be slowly heated up to 1425°F (775°C). From there, the material should be held at temperature until austenite completely forms before quenching in oil at room temperature or cooling air if oil is unavailable. After quenching, the material can then be tempered at 300-400°F (150-200°C) for two hours, depending on the desired hardness level, before being cooled again with air or oil quench, depending on what was done prior.
Tool steel W1 has good machinability when working with proper cutting tools, such as inserts made from carbide or ceramic materials. This material can also be drilled without difficulty, although users should take caution when doing so because work hardening may occur during drilling, which can cause tool breakage if not taken into consideration prior to starting operations.
Tool steel w1 can easily be welded using TIG/MIG processes, but users should take caution when doing so as preheating may help reduce warping/distortion caused by welding operations on this material type due to its hardenable nature when heated up beyond certain temperatures during welding processes.
In conclusion, tool steel w 1 offers excellent wear resistance, toughness and machinability, and good corrosion-resistant properties due to its high chromium content, which helps protect it from rusting in most environments while still allowing it to withstand temperatures up to 1120°F (600°C). It is often used in many industrial applications, such as cutting tools, woodworking knives and machine knives, among others. The material also has good machining characteristics when worked with proper cutting tools while still being able to weld using TIG/MIG processes, albeit with caution since preheating may help reduce warping/distortion caused by welding operations on this type of material due to its hardenable nature when heated up beyond certain temperatures during those processes. Finally, when heat treating tool steel w 1, care must always be taken to ensure that austenite completely forms before quenching in oil at room temperature or air cooling if oil is unavailable, followed by tempering at 300-400°F (150-200 °C) for two hours depending on the desired hardness level before being cooled again with air or oil quench depending on what was done prior.
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