ThePipingMart Blog Metals Types of carbon steel and their Properties

Types of carbon steel and their Properties

Types of carbon steel and their Properties

What is carbon steel?

A form of steel known as carbon steel is one with a carbon content of more than 0.02% and less than 2% (steel with a carbon content of more than 2% is known as cast iron, and steel with a carbon content of less than 0.02% is known as wrought iron). Furthermore, it has the highest production of any metal material.


It is typically used on metal components like cutting tools, steel cables, piano wires, springs, and knives that must be strong, hard, and wear-resistant. The pieces often need to be treated and tempered after being processed. After heat treatment, steel with a higher carbon content has greater hardness, strength, and wear resistance. High-carbon, medium-carbon, and low-carbon steel are the three categories of carbon steel.

Types of carbon steel

Low-carbon steel

Usually have a carbon content of between 0.04% and 0.30%. The largest category of carbon steel is this one. The shapes it covers range greatly, from Flat Sheets to Structural Beams. Other elements are decreased or increased based on the desired qualities required. It is flexible, malleable, and soft. Steel bars, stamping-resistant components, specific steels, etc., are among the things it mostly produces. The surface hardness of low-carbon steel can be improved through the carburizing process, making it more abrasion resistant and boosting its strength even further.

Properties of low carbon steel

  • High toughness
  • Low tensile strength
  • High weldability
  • Low cost
  • High ductility
  • Low hardness
  • High machinability

Medium carbon steel

It has a typical carbon value between 0.31% and 0.60% and a manganese content between.060% and 1.65%. Although this product is more difficult to mold, weld, and cut than low-carbon steel, it is stronger. Heat treatment is a common method for hardening and tempering medium carbon steels. It is ideal for producing products like gears and studs that will endure a lot of wear and tear. Medium carbon steel can be heated and maintained at a constant temperature until it reaches the desired hardness, then soaked and cooled if more hardening is required. The production of stainless steel is the primary goal.

Properties of medium carbon steel

  • Medium strength
  • Moderate toughness
  • Medium weldability
  • Medium ductility
  • Moderate machinability

 High-carbon steel

It is frequently referred to as “carbon tool steel” and usually contains carbon content between 0.61% and 1.50%. Cutting, bending, and welding high-carbon steel is particularly challenging. It gets exceedingly hard and brittle after being heated. High-carbon steel can be made with chromium and manganese alloys added to assist the material resists corrosion. The primary applications are steel doors, rails, knives, general bearings, and steel frame molds (used to shape steel).


Properties of high carbon steel

  • High toughness
  • Low machinability
  • High strength
  • Moderate weldability
  • Low ductility


Related Post