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5 Types of Hydraulic Pumps and Their Applications

Hydraulic Pump

Hydraulic pumps are essential for hydraulic systems used in many industries, including construction, manufacturing, and transportation. A hydraulic pump converts mechanical energy into fluid energy to push hydraulic fluid throughout the hydraulic system. There are several types of hydraulic pumps, each with its unique features and applications. This blog post will discuss the different types of hydraulic pumps commonly used in industry and their specific applications.

What is Hydraulic Pumps?

Hydraulic pumps convert mechanical energy from a prime mover, such as an electric motor or internal combustion engine, into fluid power energy. This is done by pressuring the hydraulic liquid through a pump piston, cylinder or rotary vane and transferring it to another device to provide motion, such as an actuator or other machine-driven component. Hydraulic pumps in modern engineering systems provide significant advantages compared to other methods of generating force and motion control due to their high efficiency and dependability.

Types of Hydraulic Pumps and Their Application

Gear Pumps

Gear pumps are the industry’s most commonly used type of hydraulic pump. They are simple, affordable, and highly efficient as they can achieve up to 3000 psi pressures. They have fewer moving parts than other pumps, reducing the chances of breakdowns. They also have a relatively low noise level. Gear pumps are used in power steering, low-pressure hydraulic systems, and lubrication systems.

Vane Pumps

Vane pumps offer high efficiency, low noise, and stable continuous operation. They are used in applications requiring a low to moderate flow rate at constant pressure, such as machine tool circuits and extrusion equipment. Vane pumps come in two types: unbalanced and balanced. Unbalanced vane pumps operate at higher speeds, while balanced vane pumps offer more stable operation for higher-pressure applications.

Piston Pumps

Piston pumps are the most powerful and efficient type of hydraulic pump. They can achieve pressures of up to 6000 psi, making them ideal for heavy equipment, construction equipment, and shipbuilding applications. They come in various types, including axial, radial, and bent-axis piston pumps. Piston pumps have high precision and are often used in critical systems, such as aerospace applications.

Screw Pumps

Screw pumps are mainly used in applications where highly viscous liquids are pumped, such as crude oil and chemicals. Screw pumps are built to handle shear-sensitive and abrasive liquids that cause clogging in other types of pumps. Their design consists of two or more intermeshing screws, and the clearance between them determines the flow rate. Screw pumps are ideal for oil rigs, refineries, and petrochemical plants.

Radial Piston Pumps

Radial piston pumps are known for their high efficiency and low noise level operation. They are ideal for high-pressure, low-flow applications. In radial piston pumps, the pistons come in contact with a fixed valve plate, which directs the flow of hydraulic fluid. They are often used in applications that require a stable flow rate, such as machining tools, presses, and conveyors.


Understanding the different types of hydraulic pumps and their applications is essential when selecting the right pump for your hydraulic system. Gear pumps are the most common type of hydraulic pump, while piston pumps are the most powerful and efficient. Vane pumps are used in applications that require a low to moderate flow rate, and screw pumps are best suited for high viscous liquids. Radial piston pumps offer high efficiency and low noise level operation for high-pressure, low-flow applications. By considering the type of application you need, you can choose the right hydraulic pump for your system to ensure maximum efficiency and performance.

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