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Distinction between Open and Closed Die Forging for Aluminum and Stainless Steel

What is Open Die Forging?

Open die forging, also known as free forging, is a type of metalworking. It compresses metal that has been heated between two dies. The metal is shaped into the desired shape by hammering or pressing at temperatures ranging from 500 °F to 2400 °F. The majority of these forgings are produced on flat dies, but V-dies, round swaging dies, pins, mandrels, and loose tools are also used depending on the part.

This technique is very similar to closed die forging. However, open die forging is distinct in that the shape of the piece is the result of repeated local forming with geometrically simple dies that are typically moved relative to the piece, rather than the shape of the dies used. The name for this forging process comes from the fact that the metal is never completely contained in the dies.

Open die forgings produce strong, long-lasting parts ranging in size from a few pounds to hundreds of tons. As a result, it is a good way to make large and simple parts like bars, rings, blanks, hollows, and spindles. Open die forging is also a good option for custom metal components.

What is Closed Die Forging?

Closed die forging is a type of forging. Impression dies forging is another term for it. Two or more dies with a precise profile of the desired component are used in this process. The heated raw material is placed at the die’s bottom. The dies are then moved closer together until the raw material is formed into the desired shape and size.

Closed die forging is used in high-quality component applications. Closed die forgings are used when a project requires strength, dependability, and fatigue resistance. As a result, closed die forging is a popular manufacturing process in a variety of industries. Some of the parts formed by this type of forging can be found in the automotive, aerospace, and defense industries.

Aluminum Alloys Suitable For Forging

Forged aluminum is ideal for a variety of applications, particularly when safety and performance from a lightweight metal are required. Aluminum forged components are frequently found in parts that are stressed in a larger mechanism, such as gears or wheel spindles.

Forged aluminum is likely to be used in aerospace, automotive, firearms, and other industries that require harsh environments and high durability standards. Forged aluminum can also be found in hand tools such as pliers, hammers, wrenches, and surgical instruments. Commercial alloys such as 6061 and 7075 are among the most commonly forged aluminum alloys. Alloys such as 2024, 2219, and 7050 are also commonly used in the aerospace industry.

Forging And Stainless Steel Alloys

When it comes to forging, stainless steel has several advantages. Among these is its superior corrosion resistance. As a result, stainless steel is an excellent choice for applications prone to stress cracking, crevice corrosion, pitting, and deformation. Forged stainless steel is also resistant to high temperatures, making it an excellent choice for heat exchangers, furnaces, and ovens.

Stainless steel alloys suitable for forging include those in the 300 series, such as 303, 304, 316, and 321. The 400 series, which includes the 410, 420, and 440, is also suitable for forging. Forged stainless steel is used in a wide range of industries, including agriculture, construction, sports and recreation, transportation, petrochemical, aerospace, marine, and medical.

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