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How Does Stick Welding Work?

Stick Welding Work

Stick welding, also known as Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), is one of the earliest techniques. It’s a simple and versatile process used to join metal parts. Stick welding is often used in construction, industrial and transportation sectors and can be done in various positions. This blog post will explore how stick welding works and its applications.

The stick welding starts by striking an arc between the electrode, a metal rod coated with flux, and the metal being welded. The flux coating melts when heated, forming a protective layer over the weld seam, guarding it against contamination and oxidation. The electrode clad can provide different types of electrodes for the application. The most commonly used electrodes are made of E6010, E6013 and E7018.

When the welding process starts, the electrode is gradually melted, and the flux coating forms a protective cover, which creates a gas shield to protect the molten pool from contamination. As the electrode melts, it supplies filler material to the weld and produces a puddle of molten metal. The heat generated by this process is intense and can hold the molten metal in place in proper form.

The welding process requires the operator to maintain the hood or torch’s heat, speed, and angle. Heat control is crucial in stick welding because too much heat can melt or distort the base metal, which can result in the weakening of the weld seam. The welder must also control the welding speed to ensure the molten metal doesn’t solidify before the adequate metal is added and that the bead is uniform. The operator also has to control the angle of the electrode, as its position affects the size and depth of the weld bead.

Stick welding applications are far-reaching and include fabricating and repairing heavy equipment like pipelines, bridges, and machinery. It’s beneficial when the process occurs outdoors or in a remote location. The flexibility of the stick welding method allows welds to be performed on dissimilar metals and in confined spaces, making it an incredibly versatile welding method.

Furthermore, Stick welding is routinely used in the fabrication of sub-assemblies. Primary structures, frames, and supports are commonly produced using them. Metal artists often employ stick welding in elaborate sculptures or other artistic pieces because of their flexibility.


In conclusion, stick welding is one of the oldest and most versatile welding techniques. It’s a simple and effective way of joining metal parts and can be done in different positions. Welders must consider the hood or torch’s heat, speed, and angle throughout the process. The robust and flexible nature of stick welding makes it ideal for use in various industrial sectors. Stick welding will continue to be a fundamental technique essential to manufacturing, constructing, and maintaining structures for years.

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How Does Stick Welding Work?

by Abhishek Modak time to read: 2 min