Oil and gas plants are massive, complicated settings with thousands of miles of interconnecting pipe. Choosing the right sort of flange for the purpose is critical for any flange or product to work properly. To work effectively, the flange must fit exactly into the pipe joint. A little error in flange selection can have a significant impact on an application, resulting in a costly error.
The factors associated with selecting the suitable flange for the correct application to ensure maximum usefulness are as follows.
The design of the flange type may usually be used to identify it. First, determine if the flanges have a socket weld, flat flange, lap joint, threaded bore, welded neck, groove, or tongue flange. The bottoms are then recognized by determining whether they have a flat face, which is entirely flat, or a raised face, which is a little raised area on the face of the flange.
All of this information is normally determined by the stamping on the outer diameter of the flange, assuming it hasn’t been painted over. It is critical to retain an archive of your assembly parts for future reference and repair.
The flange size is determined by several factors, including the standard (JIS – Japanese International Standard, ANSI – American National Standards Institute, and DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung / European), the pressure level required, and the actual overall outside diameter and thickness of the flange. The number of bolt holes, inside diameter, outside diameter, bolt circle, and bolt hole diameter are all variables in determining the total call-out, but the nominal pipe size is usually uniform.
It is possible to calculate how much pressure a flange can withstand based on its thickness; in any application, thicker flanges can withstand higher pressures.
Bolt holes assist in determining flange size and pressure class. Three parameters must be considered: the actual size of the bolt holes, the pitch circle diameter, and the number of bolt holes on the flange. Higher pressure capabilities are frequently associated with stronger and thicker bolts.
Flanges can be chosen from a number of industry-defined standards. As a result, flanges aid in product selection depending on standards and applications. It is compatible with the three basic standards previously mentioned, namely JIS – Japanese International Standard, ANSI – American National Standards Institute, and DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung / European.
The pressure class denotes the maximum pressure at which the flange can work and sustain itself safely. Each standard has a range of pressure levels specified, ranging from high pressure to low-pressure tolerance. The pressure levels of products attached to flanges must be the same as those of in-service valves and pipes. The current ASME 150# per B16 standard is the most widely used industry pressure class.
It is important to select the appropriate material for a flange. This requires an understanding and use of the parts in a pipe system application. The most commonly used materials include chrome, nickel, carbon steel, duplex steel, stainless steel, and so on.
There are a few important techniques for selecting flanges:
DEFINE YOUR REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS
Pipe flanges are available in standard blind, threaded, and weld neck types. Oilfield dimensions are becoming important for functional interchangeability as fittings become standard.
All materials have the same standard dimensions. The requirements, on the other hand, are updated regularly, extended, and modified.
DETERMINE THE FLANGE FACING
Among the first steps in buying industrial pipe fittings is specifying the face of your flange. The flange face works as the sealing surface. The following are the most common types of flange faces:
- Full face
- Flat face
- Ring-type face
- Large female and male
- Lap joint
- Raised face
SELECT AND USE THE CORRECT PRESSURE CLASS.
The dimensions of the flange standard are determined by its pressure class. The pressure class ratings can range from 125 to 900 psi. Within the oil and gas industry, four elements determine the pressure limits of the flange:
- Sizes of flanges
- Materials used
- Both external and internal temperatures
- Bolt size, number, thickness, and dimensions
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