Branch connections are frequently used in pipelines to distribute fluid flow in various directions toward various types of equipment. Designing and installing a single line for every piece of equipment using the same fluid is difficult.
We used to take branch connections pipe to pipe to reduce material requirements, decent design networks, and make them simple. The pipe-to-pipe branch connection chart required by the piping network is being constructed following ASME B31.3 for optimum piping network optimization.
What is Branch Pipe?
Branch pipes are connections to other pipes that originate from a mother pipe or header pipe of equal or lower capacity and can be rotated or oriented in any direction. The term “tapping connection” also applies to this branch connection. This facilitates fluid distribution to various locations from the main header pipe.
What is Branch Connection in Piping?
A branch connection is made by taking a tapping connection directly from a run pipe by drilling a hole in the run pipe or using an outlet fitting. This offers a pipe connection that allows fluid to flow from a pipe with a larger diameter to one with a smaller diameter.
The fluid pressure, pipe reinforcement pad thickness, and pipe size must be considered when strengthening the branch pipe. Hot taps, or branch connections, are made onto active pipelines.
Branch connections include drain, vent, and plumbing instrument connections and any line that joins another line to the header line.
Why is a Branch connection required in Piping?
Creating a branch connection in the run pipe or header pipe is beneficial in many ways to prevent complex networks. Below are a few examples of the necessities needed:
- Fluid is distributed to various columns, containers, storage tanks, pumps, and exchangers.
- Lowering the price of the fittings used to remove branches from run pipes.
- For hydro test provision of vent and drain.
- A buildup of fluid circulated via several pumps to create pressure.
- On the header, pipes add instrument connections.
Types of Branch Connection in Piping
Three types of welded branch connections in the piping standards are used for any piping network, in addition to the Standard Tee connection for taking branch pipe. Some branches or tapings are constructed by drilling a hole in the run pipe and joining a piece of pipe with a smaller diameter to it.
A reinforcing pad is required for manufactured branch pipes to increase the branch’s strength to meet design specifications.
For taking branches in the pipe, certain piping branch connections use pipe fittings or, more particularly, olet fittings. These olet fittings include internally strengthened projections, making them a more dependable and sturdy branch connection.
The standard piping branch connection number three is as follows:
- Branching Stub
- Branch with a Stub
- Orange Branch
Stub-in Branch Connection
Stub-in branches are a specific run pipe created by drilling a hole 6 mm larger than the branch pipe’s outer diameter.
In other words, a stub-in branch is created by drilling a hole more significant than the outer diameter of the branch pipe in the run pipe. In a stub-in fit-up branch connection, the inner diameter of the header pipe inner diameter is shared by the edge of the branch pipe.
The pipe branch connection is then welded to create a connection resembling a reducing tee. When the run pipe diameter and branch pipe diameter differ by more than one size, a stub-in branch is typically constructed.
For instance, the branch connection type will be Stub-in if the run pipe has a nominal size of 12 inches and the branch pipe has a nominal size of 8 inches (more than one size difference).
According to design specifications, pipe branch connections are strengthened by adding a reinforcement pad that is the same size and material as run pipe. As a result, the branch has sufficient strength to withstand the tension and pressure that the fluid running in the pipe creates.
Stub-on Branch Connection
Stub-on is a form of the branch that is constructed by creating a hole that is the same size as the branch’s internal diameter, in contrast to the Pipe branch connection Stub-in.
A hole made the same size as the internal diameter of the branch pipe is used to link the Stub pipes. The Stub-on pipe fit-up is complete because this branch does not enter the hole but remains on the run pipe’s upper surface. After fitting, the Run pipe will appear to be “sitting on” a branch.
When Stub-on Branch is created:
Header and Branch pipes are the same size.
There is only one size difference between run pipe and branch pipe.
Stub-on branch fabrication will be done, for instance, if the run pipe is nominally 12 inches in diameter and the branch pipe is 12 inches in diameter or 10 inches (not more than one size difference).
Olet Branch Connection
reinforced fittings. Depending on the lot fitting being used to accept the branch output from the header pipe, this form of connection can be threaded or welded.
Branch outlets come in various sizes, and let fittings are available. This is a self-reinforced fitting that can withstand the pressure and stress created by pipes.
Olet fittings are frequently used to accept a branch at a 90-degree angle. However, some Olet fittings specifically created and produced can also be used to establish connections at 45 degrees.
Olet fittings come in various designs and are typically used to tap connections from run pipes. The following Olets fitting types are widely used:
- Sockolet: These Olet fittings are socket-weld branch connections that are reinforced branch fittings. item was produced with pressure ratings of 3000#, 6000#, and 9000#.
- The most popular olet fitting, or wallet, creates a butt-weld branch connection from the run pipe. This lot fitting’s ends have pre-bevels to accept butt weld connections.
- Thredolet: As the name implies, a threaded branch outlet is employed whenever a strengthened fitting with a threaded outlet connection is needed.
- Laterolet: This uniquely shaped lot is compatible with branch outlets that are 45 degrees out.
- Elbowlet: This is used to connect equipment by drilling holes in an elbow. This is also offered with a threaded and socketed connecting end. This sort of fitting on the elbow connector is self-reinforced.
- Nippolet: This is a single-piece fitting for vents, drains, and valve connection take-offs. Nippolet is offered with a male socket or male thread connection.
- Sweepolet: This lot fitting is a butt-weld branch connection olet with built-in reinforcement, a low-stress factor, and a long fatigue life. Radiography and ultrasound are simple examination methods for this weld joint.
- Add Weldolet: This has a butt weld connection as the sweep let, but it is inserted up to the pipe’s internal diameter to accept fit-up and welding connection.
- To take branches in brass or copper tubing, use a bracelet. Both thread and socket connections support its branch connection.
- Couplet: This was created to install a QBD fire prevention sprinkler system (Quartzoid Bulb Detector).
Features of Stub-in or Stub-on Branch Connection
The following are some characteristics of Stub-in or Stub-on type branch connections:
- As a result, the fittings needed for taking branches are less expensive.
- The pipe-to-pipe branches can be strengthened by adding a reinforcement pad.
- Installation time is reduced because there is just one weld to complete as opposed to the three weld connections required for “TEE.”
- The Stub-in joint’s welding strength is equivalent to that of butt-weld joints. Stub-on weld strength, however, has lower numbers.
- With this, we may also take branches that aren’t exactly 90 degrees.
When installing instruments, distributing flow, or providing a high-point vent or low-point drain, a branch is frequently employed in Piping. Two methods exist for creating a branch:
- Branch connection between pipes
- Branch connection from a pipe to a fitting
There are two types of Pipe to Pipe Branch connection type:
- Stub-in branch: For pipe sizes that differ by more than one size when running from branch to pipe.
- Stub-on branch: When the Run and Branch are equal or when there is only a tiny difference.
- Olet branch refers to a branch connection derived from Olet fittings.
- Stub-in-type branches can handle pressure and tension more than Stub-on-type branches.
- Fittings made by Olet are strengthened fittings. As a result, they don’t need a second RF pad, which is why Stub-in and Stub-on branch connections need a reinforcement pad to strengthen the connection.
- For various branch-type connections from the run pipe, there are many olet fitting types.
- If the Rf pad is not used, Olet-type branch connections are more expensive than Stub branching.
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