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What Are The Welding Positions In the Oil And Gas Industry?

Our lives now offer countless opportunities thanks to technology, apparatus, and tools. However, to make the most of any of them, one must know how to use them and follow all applicable instructions. Every operation and equipment utilized in the oil and gas sector relies on welding. To prevent mistakes or product damage, welding must be done as efficiently as possible. Even though engineering technology is developing quickly, some construction tasks still require manual labor. And among these activities is welding. Manual welding is still used for about 95% of welding operations at petroleum construction sites. It is essential to complete the operation quickly because welding involves various processes, positions, and techniques.

Types of welding positions

It’s interesting to learn that every welding procedure requires the welder to have a proper position. The weld quality will suffer significantly if this is not the case. Various parameters influence the weld quality, but a welding position is a fundamental necessity of the welding process. In any welding process, the various welding positions often include:

  • Flat position
  • Horizontal position
  • Vertical position
  • Overhead position

Flat Position

Welding is simple in this posture, also known as a “down hand” position. The primary welding position is in this position. The metals that need to be connected are laid out flat, and the welder passes an electric arc across the workpiece in a horizontal path from the top down. The top or upper side of the joint is joined by welding, allowing the molten material to fall into its edges or groove. This welding position is referred to as the “1G” position for a butt weld and the “1F” position for a fillet weld following “ASME section IX.”

Horizontal position

The plates are typically vertical in this orientation, and the weld axis is horizontal. As a result, it is more complex than flat-position welding. As the name implies, the welder must be skilled enough to perform horizontal position welding. It has a horizontal weld axis. The type of weld determines the position that must be maintained. For a fillet weld, the weld bead is created at the 90-degree angle formed by the intersection of the plate and the metal maintained vertically and horizontally. The weld face will be on a vertical plane while executing a groove weld. To successfully regulate the flow of molten metal by adjusting the electrode’s movement and speed, an experienced welder is thus required. The welder is free to move around the joint if the workpiece is stationary throughout most horizontal welding. However, welding can be done while the welder is stationary if the workpiece is rotating.

Vertical Position

The weld axis is vertical when welding vertically. The issue with this welding position is that the molten metal flows down and builds up at the bottom area when the welding is done. Therefore, welding in a downhill or uphill vertical position is required to control the metal flow.

Overhead Position

One of the most challenging welding positions is this one. The two pieces of metal will be positioned above the welder in this situation, and the welder will have to slant himself and the equipment to weld the joints.

The degree of difficulty for this position is the same whether the weld is a butt weld or a fillet weld. The real molten metal tends to flow downward in both welds without adhering to the base metal. Because of this, if a highly skilled welder does not perform the welding, it might not meet the success requirements. Let’s make a straightforward conclusion based on the justifications mentioned above. The welding position is a straightforward positioning of the welder concerning the workpiece.

Some combination welding positions are identified by the designations 5G position and 6G position. Check out our Oil and Gas Piping Engineering course to learn more about them. Welding engineering is a fantastic option to study if you are interested in the oil and gas industry and are searching for a degree to prepare you for employment after graduation.

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