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What Is Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)?

Summary of Electrical Discharge Machining

EDM is a manufacturing method that uses electrical discharges, or sparks produced by electricity, to change a workpiece’s shape or other physical characteristics. It is sometimes referred to as spark eroding or wire erosion. Manufacturing businesses manipulate workpieces using a variety of manufacturing methods. But unlike the majority of these procedures, EDM doesn’t use mechanical force. Instead, it takes advantage of the heat that electrical discharges produce. A workpiece’s substance will melt when it is subjected to electrical discharges. As a result, manufacturing firms can readily use EDM to control otherwise complex workpieces.

Two electrodes are used to perform EDM. A “tool” electrode and a “workpiece” electrode are present. The course of the electricity changes so that it flows between these two electrodes as the voltage between them rises. The workpiece can then be heated selectively using the electrodes until the desired modifications are made.

It’s vital to remember that there are numerous different forms of EDM, with die sink and wire cut being the two most popular. The earliest type of EDM was die-sink, invented in the 1940s; in contrast, wire-cut is a more recent and contemporary sort of EDM, invented in the 1960s. The tool electrode in wire-cut EDM is a wire. It’s a less complicated technique that works well for producing metal dies.

The Benefits of Electrical Discharge Machining

EDM has several advantages for manufacturing businesses. It can alter most materials’ shapes or physical characteristics, including hard metals like steel.

EDM can produce very small or even tapered holes due to the electrical discharges’ tightly regulated nature in this manufacturing technique.

Additionally, workpieces can have smooth, spotless surfaces thanks to EDM. The electrical discharges will heat the workpiece as they start. This will result in a smoother, cleaner surface for the workpiece, frequently desired by manufacturing organizations.


Electrical discharges used in the manufacturing process are known as EDM, and they change a workpiece’s shape or physical characteristics. Manufacturing businesses carry it out using a tool electrode and a workpiece electrode. The sparks created by the two electrodes heat the workpiece.

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