ThePipingMart Blog other What is Haynes Material?

What is Haynes Material?

Haynes is also called a High-performance alloy. Haynes material is composed of nickel, chromium, tungsten, and molybdenum, offering exceptional high-temperature strength, great resistance to nitriding conditions, and exceptional long-term thermal stability. It has excellent forming and welding properties and is simply constructed. The chemical process industries rely on Haynes alloys for their ultra-corrosion-resistant products, and the industrial heating sectors frequently employ Haynes alloys for their sweltering situations. Haynes has long been at the forefront of high-temperature alloys. It is ideally suited to a wide range of component applications in the aerospace and power industries because of its combination of qualities. Combustion cans, transition ducts, flame holders, thermocouple sheaths, and other significant gas turbine parts are made of it. Haynes material is offered in this state after solution treatment at 2150 to 2275°F and fast cooling. All pieces should be annealed and quickly cooled to recover the best balance of qualities after hot or cold working the material.

Later, engine designers had a significantly bigger thermal advantage because of Haynes 188 grade. Due to its unrivaled combination of high-temperature strength, oxidation resistance, and improved thermal stability, Haynes 230 grade has seen an upsurge in its application. The Haynes 242 grade has a lot of potential for use in fasteners, duct segments, containment rings, seal rings, and casings for aircraft engines. The most recent which is Haynes 282 offers great high-temperature characteristics together with excellent weldability and fabricability.

High-performance, heat-resistant alloys offer characteristics never before possible outside of the aviation industry. Haynes 214 grade is being used more and more for “clean firing” in the ceramics, metals, automotive, and electronics industries thanks to its exceptional oxidation resistance up to 2200°F (1204°C).

Due to their exceptional resistance to oxidation, sulfidation, and molten salt attack, Haynes 556 and grade 160 alloys have very good resistance in the waste disposal and fossil energy production.

Due to their outstanding qualities, Haynes grades 120, 230, and 556 are offering affordable solutions to several maintenance issues in the heat-treating and industrial heating industries.

Different Grades of Haynes:

Some of the most utilized grades are discussed as follows

Haynes 188:

Haynes 188 offers excellent high-temperature strength, very good resistance to oxidizing environments up to 2000°F (1095°C) for prolonged exposures, and excellent resistance to sulfate deposit hot corrosion. It has been utilized for cast components because it is easily produced and molded using traditional procedures. Excellent resistance to molten chloride salts and decent resistance to gaseous sulfidation are two additional appealing qualities.

Good forming and welding qualities can be found in Haynes 188 grade. As long as it is held at 2150°F (1175°C) for a long enough period to bring the entire piece to temperature, it may be forged or hot-worked in various ways. Due to its high ductility, grade 188 is also easily produced through cold working. However, because of how quickly it work-hardens, frequent intermediate annealing procedures might be required for difficult component forming operations. To regain the best balance of characteristics, any hot- or cold-worked parts should be annealed and quickly chilled. Haynes 188 can be joined using both manual and automatic welding techniques, such as resistance, electron beam, gas tungsten arc, and gas metal arc welding. It shows strong constraint welding traits.

Haynes 188 is considered to be a popular choice for applications in gas turbines and other high-temp situations due to its superior corrosion resistance and high-temperature strength. Lanthanum was added to the mixture, which increased the corrosion resistance of 188 by a factor of 10. Haynes 188 is one of the greatest options for custom parts since it can be quickly produced into a range of precise shapes and is available in a variety of forms.

Haynes 242:

The Haynes 242 grade (UNS N10242) is a nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy that can harden with age and gets its strength from a long-range ordering process. This grade has excellent low-cycle fatigue characteristics, great low-cycle strength up to 1300°F (705°C), low thermal expansion characteristics, good oxidation resistance up to 1500°F (815°C), and extremely good thermal stability and fabricability. It is utilized in high-strength fasteners, confinement, and gas turbine seal rings.

Its composition includes Nickel which is 58% present, 24–26% of Molybdenum, 7-9% of Chromium, and 2.50% of Cobalt. Fe, iron, just 2%. Copper, Cu, Aluminum, Al, and Silicon Si all have very minuscule amounts of 0.80-0.50%, respectively, along with other trace amounts of carbon and boron. Haynes 242 can be machined using conventional techniques used for iron-based alloys. It is advised to utilize water-based coolants while performing high-speed operations like turning, grinding, or milling. For drilling, tapping, broaching, or boring, the use of strong lubricants is appropriate. Carbide tools are appropriate when turning is done with a continuous cut. Due to its high ductility, Haynes(r) 242 can be produced using traditional techniques. Powerful tools are needed.

It is possible to weld Haynes 242 using all common techniques. Metal-arc welding, gas-tungsten arc welding, shielded metal-arc welding, and submerged-arc welding are a few of the frequently employed techniques. It is advised to utilize filler metal made of the same alloy. The surface that will be welded needs to be cleaned before the welding process starts.

Haynes 242 should be forged using normal techniques between 1149 and 927°C (2100 and 1700°F).

Utilizing standard tools, Haynes 242 can be cold worked. Soft die materials with bronze and zinc alloys are advised to reduce galling and produce a crisp finish. However, the die has a limited lifespan.

Haynes 242 is annealed at a temperature of 1093°C (2000°F), and then quickly cooled. Haynes 242 in the annealed condition can undergo an age-hardening thermal treatment by being heated for 24 hours at 649°C (1200°F), followed by air cooling. Applications include ducting, fasteners, and hot section seal rings using Haynes 242. Equipment used in petrochemical processes that are exposed to acid or fluorine chemicals also uses the alloy.

Haynes 25 (Grade L605):

This is considered a popularly used grade of Haynes material. Extremely robust cobalt-based alloys with exceptional temperature and oxidation resistance are Haynes 25 (Grade L605). With high resistance to metal galling, the grade Haynes 25 combines several of the greatest qualities of the majority of nickel alloys. Its superb welding properties make Haynes 25 a wise choice for complicated components, and its high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance (this grade can easily endure oxidizing situations up to 1800 degrees F) make it ideal for a range of industrial uses. Haynes 25 is widely used in high-temperature machineries such as gas turbine engines, ball bearings, and other components. The strongest fabricable grade is L605, which has an oxidation resistance of up to 2000 °F. Similar to many this grade is also hotly formable between 1900 and 2300 degrees Fahrenheit. A cobalt-based grade with good high-temperature strength and remarkable oxidation resistance up to 2000° F, this grade of Haynes is easily formable. Haynes 25 or L605 complies with the requirements of AMS 5537, AMS 5796, AMS 5759, AMS 5537, and UNS R30605. Tube, pipe, wire, sheet, and plate are examples of the many shapes that are available in big or small quantities. 

Haynes 25 is an example of a high-temperature alloy (HTA), which is typically utilized above 1000°F and is incredibly resistant to hot air and other hot gases above the temperature. This kind of oxidation-resistant alloy is very suitable for a variety of industrial applications because it has outstanding metallurgical stability and is simple to weld and construct. Haynes 25’s strong work-hardening rates make it possible to form quickly in challenging conditions.

Similar to other solid-solution-strengthened super alloys, this grade demonstrates a loss of room temperature ductility when exposed for extended durations at intermediate temperatures. The precipitation of harmful phases is the cause of this conduct. The phase in question in grade L605 is CO2W laves phase. In this way, it is said that grade L605 is noticeably inferior to Haynes grade 188.

Haynes 230:

Primary Characteristics of this grade include high-temperature strength, thermal stability, and environmental resistance at an excellent level. Haynes 230 offers superior strength at high temperatures, exceptional resistance to oxidizing environments up to 2100°F (1149°C) for extended exposures, remarkable resistance to nitriding environments, and superior long-term thermal stability. It is easily shaped, castable, and easily produced. Other appealing attributes include a marked resistance to grain coarsening with extended exposure to high temperatures, as well as lower thermal expansion characteristics than most high-temperature alloys.

Haynes 230, which is easily fabricated, exhibits outstanding forming and welding properties. It can be hot-worked or forged as long as the temperature is maintained at 2150°F (1177°C) for a long enough time to bring the entire item to temperature. Due to its high ductility, grade 230 is also easily produced through cold working. The best balance of characteristics can be restored by annealing and quickly cooling all hot- or cold-working parts. The grade can be joined using several methods, such as resistance welding, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), and gas metal arc welding (GMAW).

Heat-Treatment: Unless otherwise stated, Haynes 230 is delivered in the solution heat-treated condition. For optimal characteristics, it is solution heat-treated between 2150 and 2275°F (1177°C) and quickly chilled or water-quenched.

The carbide precipitation that results from annealing 230 grades at lower temperatures than the solution heat-treating temperatures may slightly reduce the strength and ductility.

Haynes 230 has casting techniques including vacuum-melt investment casting and conventional air-melt sand mold casting. For improved fluidity, silicon levels at the upper end of the standard range are advised. Depending on the required properties, castings may be used in either the as-cast or solution-heated condition.

Applications: The Haynes 230 grade’s unique combination of properties makes it the ideal option for a variety of component applications in the aerospace and power industries. Combustion cans, transition ducts, flame holders, thermocouple sheaths, and other essential gas turbine components are among its uses. In the chemical process industry, grade 230 is used for bellows, ducts, high-temperature heat exchangers, high-strength thermocouple protection tubes, supports for catalyst grids in ammonia burners, and several other critical internals.

Burner flame shrouds, chains and fixtures, recuperator internals, dampers, nitriding furnace internals, heat-treating baskets, grates, trays, sparger tubes, thermocouple protection tubes, cyclone internals, and many other items are examples of industrial heating applications for Haynes 230.

The solid-solution-strengthened Haynes 230 grade, like other grades of Haynes, has exceptional high-temperature strength and is easily fabricated at room temperature. It is especially useful for very long-term applications at temperatures of 1200°F (649°C) or greater and depending on the temperature, it can outlast stainless steels and nickel alloys by a factor of up to 100 to 1. As an alternative, the greater strength of 230 enables the use of design section thicknesses up to 75% thinner than those of inferior alloys without sacrificing load-bearing capacity.

Heat Treatment of Haynes 230 is typically the final solution heat-treated for a given amount of time at 2250°F (1232°C), depending on the section thickness. Even at temperatures as low as 2125°F (1163°C), solution heat-treating can be done, although the resulting material characteristics will change. Even lower temperatures can be used for annealing during manufacture, but for the best characteristics and structure, a final, follow-up solution heat-treatment is required.

Haynes 230 may be easily joined together using resistance, shielded metal arc, gas tungsten arc (TIG), and gas metal arc (MIG) welding processes. Due to the long cooling of the weld and the considerable heat input to the base metal, submerged-arc welding is not advised. These elements may exacerbate weld constraints and encourage cracking.

Base Metal Preparation: Before welding, the joint surface and surrounding region should be thoroughly cleaned. It is best to eliminate all grease, oil, crayon smudges, sulfur compounds, and other foreign substances. When the alloy is welded, it is ideal but not necessary for it to be in the solution-annealed state.

Filler Metal Selection: AWS A5.14, NiCrWMo-1 Haynes 230-W filler wire is suggested for joining 230-grade alloys using gas tungsten-arc or gas metal-arc welding (AWS A5.14, 230-W). Shielded Metal Arc welding is also possible with coated electrodes made of 230-W alloy for non-ASME code building. 230-W filler wire, and Haynes 556 alloy welding goods may all be taken into consideration, depending on the specific circumstance, for attaching dissimilar metals of 230 grade to nickel, cobalt, or iron-base materials.

Preheating, interpass Temperatures, and Post-Weld Heat Treatment: Preheating is typically not necessary as long as the base metal being welded is warmer than 32°F (0°C). In general, interpass temperatures should be modest. Whenever necessary, auxiliary cooling techniques may be employed between weld passes as long as they don’t introduce any impurities.

Machinability: The work hardening of the grade occurs quickly during machining, and therefore requires more power to cut than simple carbon steels do. Machine tools should be rigid, and their rated capacity should not be exceeded by more than 75%. Tool overhang should be kept to a minimum when holding the workpiece securely. When machining titanium, rigidity is especially crucial since titanium has a far lower modulus of elasticity than either steel or nickel alloys. Thin titanium workpieces tend to deflect when subjected to tool pressures, leading to chatter, tool rubbing, and tolerance issues.

It is important to keep the tools sharp at all times. Instead of only using sharpened instruments when necessary, switch to them frequently. In particular, titanium chips have a propensity to gall and fuse to the cutting edges of tools, accelerating tool wear and failure. It is essential to note that cutting edges, especially disposable inserts, are disposable. 

Haynes 75: A common heat-resistant alloy called Haynes 75 grade (UNS N06075) is utilized in low-stress gas turbines and industrial applications.

Haynes 214: This grade (UNS N07214) is made to allow for traditional forming and joining while also offering the best high-temperature oxidation resistance for a wrought material. This grade is employed in difficult, specialist gas turbine parts such as honeycomb seals, combustor splash plates, and other static oxidation-limited parts because it exhibits exceptional oxidation resistance up to 2300°F (1260°C).

Haynes 233: This grade is a novel grade that combines great creep strength with excellent oxidation resistance at temperatures up to 2100°F (1149°C), a combination of characteristics never before attained in an easily fabricated alloy. The creation of a protective alumina scale gives the alloy its extraordinary resistance to oxidation. Various structural elements in the growing technological industry, hot gas components in aerospace and industrial gas turbines, industrial heating fixtures and sensors, and so on are examples of potential uses.

Haynes 244: This grade has a wide operating temperature range up to 1400°F (760°C), and it is age-hardenable. Compared to Haynes 242 grade, this grade has a higher yield strength and creep rupture strength, and a lower thermal expansion. This grade alloy also offers outstanding oxidation resistance and great low-cycle fatigue. Aero-engine designers can achieve superior dimensional control, sealing, and containment properties thanks to the increased strength and lower thermal expansion.

Haynes 263: The Haynes 263 grade alloys (UNS N07263) have outstanding forming and welding properties and are a gamma-prime strengthened, age-hardenable alloy with exceptional strength in the 1000-1400°F (540-760°C) temperature range.

Haynes 282: This grade (UNS N07208) was created for high-temperature structural applications, particularly those in commercial and industrial gas turbine engines. It has a special mix of creep strength, thermal stability, weldability, and fabricability that is not present in any commercial alloys now on the market. In the temperature range of 1200 to 1700°F (649 to 927°C), this novel alloy has exceptional creep strength that is superior to Waspaloy alloy and on par with R-41 alloy. This alloy’s characteristics make it excellent for hot-gas-path components, exhaust and nozzle structures, forged rings and cases, and other important gas turbine applications. Castings that have been vacuum-melted and powder components made with additives have both been developed and used successfully.

Haynes 556: The grade 556 alloys (UNS R30556) have high strength with a wide range of resistance to high-temperature corrosive conditions. It is used in various refineries, boilers, gas turbines, heat-treating, calcining, chemical processing, galvanizing, and waste incineration processes. Excellent for dissimilar filler metal welding when joining nickel or cobalt alloys to iron-base alloys. Excellent for fabrication.

Haynes 617: Gas turbines frequently employ the Haynes 617 alloy (UNS N06617) for combustion cans, ducting, and transitions.

A wide range of aerospace components uses the Haynes 625 and 625SQ grades (UNS N06625, UNS N06626). For bellows-type applications, the 625SQ alloy grade offers better LCF qualities.

Related Post