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What is Martensitic Stainless Steel?

It is a form of stainless steel that can be toughened and hardened using heat and ageing processes because of its chemical makeup. Because of these techniques, Martensitic steel is stronger than other sorts and is, therefore, valuable material for creating mechanical instruments, valves, turbine parts, and other varied items.

Characteristics of Martensitic Stainless Steel

  • High strength but low plasticity and Weldability are characteristics of martensitic stainless steel. 
  • Because of its slightly inadequate corrosion resistance, it is typically used for parts with specific mechanical requirements but only modest needs for corrosion protection, such as springs, steam turbine blades, hydraulic press valves, etc.
  • They are usually used after quenching and tempering this kind of steel.
  • The high carbon content in martensitic grades often results in modest corrosion resistance.
  • Because of its hardenability, it gives very little Weldability. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment may need to be taken into special care to minimize cracking and obtain desirable characteristics/properties.

Types of Martensitic Stainless Steel

  • LOW CARBON MARTENSITIC STEEL – Martensitic grades may only develop in moderately cold conditions due to the high carbon content. The carbon content of the steel affects the strength produced by heat treatment. Carbon concentration enhances the potential for strength and hardness but diminishes ductility and toughness.
  • HIGH CARBON MARTENSITIC STEEL – Usually, high-carbon martensitic steel contains 0.61% to 1.50% carbon. Due to carbon’s ability to fortify the molecular structure, steel with a higher carbon content is stronger. However, it also makes the metal more brittle, making it difficult to weld or mould into different shapes.
  •  410 – Type 410 stainless steel is a martensitic type of stainless steel used for various purposes. Applications for fasteners, springs, pins, cutlery, hardware, gun clips, micrometre components, turbine blades, coal screens, pump rods, nuts, bolts, fittings, ball bearings, shafts, impellers, pistons, and valves are just a few examples. Modifying the hardening and tempering processes will vary the hardness levels.
  • 420 – Type 420 stainless steel has a wide range of hardness levels in hardened and tempered conditions because its carbon content spans from 0.15% to 0.45%.
  • We may offer Type 420 Stainless at different carbon levels to satisfy particular hardness or mechanical properties after heat treatment, including cold rolled with a minimum tensile strength of 120,000 psi.
  • 440 – Compared to Type 410 or Type 420, Type 440A stainless steel might be harder but less malleable when annealed. Because it can be hardened to RC50 or higher, this grade of stainless steel is highly desirable for applications requiring blanking into blades. Blades stay sharper longer thanks to the high hardness of this grade.

Applications of Martensitic Stainless Steel

  • Due to their excellent heat distribution properties, martensitic stainless steels are ideal for heat exchangers and other applications that demand high thermal conductivity.
  • Due to their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), they have a higher chance of maintaining their shape at high temperatures.
  • Additionally, they are used in aerospace applications where a high level of stiffness is necessary.
  • Engineering steels with low corrosion are used in several mechanical engineering applications.
  • Piping, valves, and boat shafts
  • cutlery
  • medical tools (scalpels, razors, and internal clamps)
  • bearings (ball bearings)
  • razor blades
  • moulds for polymers
  • brake disks for bikes & motorbikes
  • surgical and dental instruments
  • petrochemical industry 

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