Biomedical materials come in a wide range of characteristics and must fulfil certain requirements. The most crucial characteristic of the materials utilized. Biocompatibility is the most important factor in implant fabrication, followed by corrosion resistance. The most often used metallic biomaterials are: Stainless steel, cobalt alloys, and titanium and titanium alloys are some of the materials used.
The first metallic material was stainless steel. A biomaterial was inserted successfully. The cobalt-based alloy was invented in 1932. Vitallium is a brand name for a product that was developed for medicinal uses. Titanium is the world’s toughest metal. The most recent metallic biomaterial. In both cases, titanium and medical and dental areas. Its alloys have shown to be effective in a variety of applications biomedical gadgets.
BIO-COMPATIBILITY AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Titanium alloys have become the most used metals for biomedical purposes. They’re utilized in medicine to replace defective hard tissue with implant devices. Artificial hip joints, artificial knee joints, bone plates, fracture fixation screws, cardiac valve prostheses, pacemakers, and artificial hearts are all examples. The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has long been in medical applications. However, due to the released titanium and aluminum, the alloy may have a harmful impact on permanent implant applications.
As a result, vanadium- and aluminum-free alloys based on Ti-6Al-4V implants have been introduced for implant applications. Ti6Al-7Nb (ASTM F1295), Ti-13Nb13Zr (ASTM F1713), and Ti-12Mo6Zr are among the new alloys (ASTM F1813). For the last 50 years, a large number of in-vivo and in-vitro titanium investigations have been conducted at universities and enterprises all over the world. The remarkable biocompatibility of titanium is linked to its oxides, according to these studies. In in-vivo animal model investigations, C.B. Johansson1 shown that titanium oxide differs from metallic biomaterials such as Ti-6Al-4V, CoCr alloys, and stainless steel 316 LVM. A thin proteoglycan layer forms the contact between the titanium implant and the bone.
Since of its surface qualities, commercially pure titanium (Cp Ti) is regarded the best bio-compatible metallic substance because it spontaneously forms a stable and inert oxide layer. Low electrical conductivity, good corrosion resistance, thermodynamic state at physiological pH values, low ion-formation propensity in aquatic settings, and an isoelectric point of the oxide of 5–6 are the key physical attributes of titanium that contribute to its biocompatibility. Furthermore, at physiological pH, the passive-film-covered surface is only mildly negatively charged, and titanium has a dielectric constant comparable to that of water, resulting in a Coulomb interaction of charged species that is similar to that of water.
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