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5 Types of Piston Pumps and Their Applications

Piston Pump

Piston pumps are an essential aspect of various industries- they are critical in producing and supplying liquids or gases in a controlled, consistent manner. Different types of piston pumps are available, and each has unique features that suit various applications. In this blog post, we will dive into the various types of piston pumps and how each of them works. We will also examine their applications and how they can help in specific industries.

What is Piston Pumps?

Piston pumps are positive displacement pumps that use a reciprocating motion to move liquid or gas through the cylinders. They are used in many industrial and commercial applications, such as agricultural irrigation, fire suppression, aerospace fluid power systems, automotive cooling systems and hydraulic machinery. Piston pumps provide a steady flow rate and low noise operation with high efficiency.

Types of Piston Pumps and Their Applications

Reciprocating Piston Pump

The reciprocating piston pump has a reciprocating piston that moves back and forth in the cylinder. This pump is often used in high-pressure operations, where only a small amount of liquid is required. Reciprocating pumps are used in the oil and gas sector for injection, compression, and transfer applications.

Metering Piston Pump

Metering piston pumps are used in applications where precision is critical. They have a plunger that moves up and down to regulate liquid flow. They are commonly used in pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and chemical processes.

Axial Piston Pump

Axial piston pumps have a cylinder block containing several pistons that move axially in response to the input power. These pumps are durable and have a longer lifespan than other piston pumps. As they have many parts, they are usually costly to produce but used in high-pressure applications.

Radial Piston Pump

Radial piston pumps have a series of cylinders arranged around a central shaft, with pistons extending from each cylinder. They are typically used in applications that require low flow rates, as they can produce high pressure with low flow. Radial piston pumps are commonly found in automotive, industrial, and agricultural hydraulic systems.

Diaphragm Piston Pump

A diaphragm piston pump uses a flexible diaphragm to move liquid. It is often used in applications that require high flow at low pressure. These pumps have a simple design, making them easy to install and maintain. They are commonly found in automotive adhesives, medical devices, and other chemical transfer applications.


Piston pumps are the most versatile and widely used in multiple industries. Understanding the different types of piston pumps and their applications can help industries employ some of the most efficient, cost-effective, and reliable techniques for liquid or gas transfer. Whether your application requires low pressure or high pressure, high flow or low flow, a piston pump can always get the job done. We hope this article has helped you better understand the different types of piston pumps and their applications.

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